Living with Dyslexia in Malaysia

kefir – list of bacteria and yeast

  Message: 1       
   Date: Wed, 15 Dec 2004 12:24:41 +0930
   From: “Dominic N. Anfiteatro” <>
Subject: Was:: does kefir grains evolve? [microflora, and size or weight of kefir grains]

Hi Nori,

 I hope you have digested the info I shared in my last reply, without suffering any indigestion in the process 😉 Otherwise I suggest to sip the info with a slurp of kefir.
Here is a list of organisms isolated from kefir grains, which is similar to the list found on Dom’s Kefir in-site:

L. casei – Homo-fermentative [responsible for 90% of lactate synthesis]
L. paracasei – Homo-fermentative
L. acidophilis – Homo-fermentative
L. hilgardi -Hetero-fermentative [responsible for 50% of lactate synthesis]
L. delbruechkii subsp. bulgaricus – Homo-fermentative
L. kefiranofaciens – Produce Kefiran, internaly within the matrix
L. kefyri – Synthesizes kefiran superficially [possibly controlls microflora]
L. desidiosus – Heterofermentative [ferments L-arabinose and gluconate]
L. brevis [Synthesizes polysaccharide]
L. cellobiosus
L. casei subsp. rhamnosus
L. casei subsp. alactosus
L. helveticus subsp. lactis
L. delbruekii subsp. lactis
L. lactis
L. fructivorans
L. parakefir
L. paracasei subsp. paracasei
L. plantarum

Lc. lactis subsp. lactis [primarilly utilize lactose]
Lc. lactis subsp. biacetylactis
Lc. lactis subsp. creomoris

Leuc. citrovorum
Leuc. cremoris
Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides
Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. dextrancicum
Leuc. mesenteroides subsp cremoris
Leuc. lactis

Strep. salivarius subsp. thermophilus [primarilly utilize lactose]
Strep. lactis
Strep. lactis subsp. diacetylactis [Synthesizes diacetyl]

Acetobacter aceti [synthesize acetic acid from ethonol in the pressence of oxygen]
Acetobacter racens


Kluyv. lactis
Kluyv. marxianus subsp. marxianus
Kluyv. bulgaricus
Kluyv. fragilis

Candida kefir
Candida pseudotropicalis

Sach. kefir [controls exogenous yeasts]
Sach. unisporum
Sach. torulopsis subsp holmii

Torula kefir [controls exogenous yeasts]


ALso, here is an abstract that I thought migh interest you, regarding size [or wieght] of kefir grains in relationship of media [amount of whey] and temperature.

“J Dairy Res. 2001 Nov;68(4):653-61

Polysaccharide production by kefir grains during whey fermentation.

Rimada PS, Abraham AG.
Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo en Criotecnologia de Alimentos, La Plata, Argentina.

Fermentation of deproteinised whey with kefir grains CIDCA AGK1 was studied focusing on polysaccharide production from lactose. Kefir grains were able to acidify whey at different rates depending on the grain/whey ratio. During fermentation, kefir grains increased their weight and a water-soluble polysaccharide was released to the media. Exopolysaccharide concentration increased with fermentation time, reaching values of 57.2 and 103.4 mg/l after 5 days of fermentation in cultures with 10 and 100 g kefir grains/l, respectively. The polysaccharide fraction quantified after fermentation corresponded to the soluble fraction, because part of the polysaccharide became a component of the grain. Weight of kefir grains varied depending on the time of fermentation. Polysaccharide production was affected by temperature.*** Although the highest concentration of polysaccharide in the media was observed at 43 degrees C at both grain/whey ratios, the weight of the grains decreased in these conditions.***[Ed Dom– this is likely due to the release or the enopolysaccharide from the grains themselves, released into the media, due to the reduction of grain-size or weight of].

In conclusion, kefir grains were able to acidify deproteinised whey, reducing lactose concentration, increasing their weight and producing a soluble polysaccharide.”

Not all grains from the same batch are likely to be large [in the case of large grains] as some smaller grains are released from larger ones. But in most cases, one should find that at least 80% of grains are uniform in size [% always being the largest in most cases.

Did this help?

Thanks for your well wishes for I and I and I and I … now back to you I with extra sheen!

—– Original Message —–
From: “noric1989” <>
To: <>
Sent: Monday, December 13, 2004 2:59 PM
Subject: [Kefir_making] Re: does kefir grains evolve?

> Hello Dom:

> Thank you for your typically profound reply.  It will take a while
for me to digest thoroughly, but in the meantime, I am curious to
know what growing conditions cause kefir grains to grow large like
golf balls and cauliflower heads.  I’ve had my current grains for a
while now (incidentally, they happen to be descendants of yours
passed down through several people).  While occasionally some may
grow large, not ALL of them grow large at once, and I’ve never been
able to link growth patterns to specific growing conditions.  Most
of the time they stay on the small side.  Ah well, maybe it really
doesn’t matter in the end if consistently good kefir is the result,
but it has piqued my curiosity.

Also, HAVE you identified specific strains of kefir?  The question
has been asked at least a few times on the list since I’ve been on
it.  My impression is that there seems to be more distinct,
indentified strains of kombucha, and somewhat more uniformity w/
kefir.  What do you think?

Hope all’s going well at home w/ your new baby and pup!



June 23, 2007 - Posted by | Kefir

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